B What type of interaction will the bases of this strand have with a complementary strand of DNA?
Which of the sequences (A-D) are complementary to the target sequence?
Target 5’……..CGAATAACTTTGG….. 3’
Sequences: A.5’-CGAATAACTTTGG-3 ’ B.5’-GCTTATTGAAACC-3 ’ C.5’-CCAAAGTTATTCG-3 ’
Below is a generic gene structure FROM A EUKARYOTE (not bacteria).
Transcription Translation stop site
Transcription stop site
List the events that need to occur for this gene to be used to make a protein. Your list should should be as detailed as you can make it based on what you recall about how genes are expressed to make proteins.
A represents a single base-pair substitution mutation. This mutation will:
B represents a 10 base-pair deletion mutation. This mutation will:
C represents a 3 base-pair insertion mutation. This mutation will:
A double stranded sequence of DNA is shown below.
5 ’ GGGTATCCC 3’
3 ’ CCCATAGGG 5’
Note: “transcribed” below is referring to the direction that the RNA polymerase is moving* Hypothetically, if either strand could be transcribed, we state that:
The protein thorain is encoded by the gene thrL, and thorain is a negative regulator of the thrMN operon. Assume there is no other regulation taking place. Predict the phenotype of a thrL– mutant that encodes a nonfunctional thrL protein.
The TreL gene is normally transcribed in skin cells, but not in muscle cells. This difference could be because (select any/all that apply):
A deletion mutation removes the start codon of a gene. Which of the following processes will subsequently be affected?
During translation, the tRNA molecule carrying the correct amino acid corresponding to its anticodon sequence must base-pair with the codon of the mRNA. What would happen in the case where the wrong anticodon successfully binds to a codon?
Suppose that a single DNA base change of an A to a T occurs and is copied during replication. Is this change necessarily a mutation?
Below is an mRNA sequence of a gene. The first triplet of nucleotides AAU (underlined) is in frame for coding, and encodes Asparagine.
50 53 58
5’—AAU GAA UGG GAG CCU GAA GGA G –3’
Which of the following DNA mutations is the most likely to result in a shorter than normal mRNA?
Match the enzyme to the process:
Because DNA polymerase must add new nucleotides to a 3’OH, what is required for DNA replication to occur?
Below is the double-stranded DNA sequence for a hypothetical and very tiny gene. The promoter is coloured in yellow. The transcription start site is indicated by the bent arrow. The DNA sequence coding for the start codon is bolded.
5’- CTATAAAGAGCCATGCAGTCC -3 ’
3’- GATATTTCTCGGTACGTCAGG -5 ’
After the start codon, what is the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein?
A condensed codon table is provided.
You have identified a previously unknown human gene that appears to have a role in cell division. It is similar enough in DNA sequence to a known yeast gene, cdc2, that you believe the two genes may be evolutionarily related. You determine and compare the DNA sequences, the predicted mRNA sequences, and the predicted amino acid sequences corresponding to the two genes. From these comparisons, you would expect to find the greatest sequence similarity between the human and yeast:
A haploid species has a gene on chromosome 2 which codes for lactase. In nature, four different alleles of the lactase gene have been identified. How many different alleles could you find in the genome of a single individual of this species?
Rainbow Trout are known to grow rapidly in 14°C water but you want to know whether they could be efficiently farmed in other temperatures. So, as a fisheries biologist, you ask whether differences in water temperature affect growth (weight gain). Over 8 months, you will test 50 fish in 8°C, 14°C, and room temperature water, in a controlled laboratory setting.
Which of the following represents the control group/groups in this experiment?
How many of the following four potential hypotheses can be tested in this experiment?
H1: Varying water temperature will have no effect on trout growth
H2: Varying water temperature will have an effect on trout growth
H3: Varying water temperature will have an effect on trout growth, such that trout will gain more weight in warmer temperatures compared to colder ones H4: Varying water temperature will have an effect on trout growth, such that trout will only gain more weight in the warmest temperature compared to the very coldest one
Which pair of dotplots provides the strongest statistical evidence that the Training group ran faster (small times), on
A particular growth factor can stimulate many types of cells to undergo cell division. A potential inhibitor of this growth factor is tested on cultures of epithelial cells grown in vitro. Culture dishes of epithelial cells are treated with different experimental conditions for two days and the amount of cell division is assessed by counting the number of cells in each dish (all dishes started with same number of cells).
Which claim is supported by the results of the experiment?
Explain in two-three sentences the reason for your choice.
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