Nicole experiences school phobia (biopsychosocial)

Case Study: Nicole Experiences School Phobia (Biopsychosocial)

Nicole is a 9-year-old Caucasian female who lives with her mother. Nicole’s father has never lived with the family and has not been in contact for many years. Nicole is a fourth-grade student at an urban elementary school and her mother works as an assistant at a veterinary hospital. Nicole and her mother moved to the city within the past year.

Presenting Problem: For the past several weeks, Nicole has increasingly refused to attend school. Initially, Nicole claimed illness in order to stay home, but lately has been tearfully refusing to go to school because she “wants to stay home” and is “scared to go back” to her classroom. Her mother has been forced to take time off from work, and occasionally enlists neighbors to stay with Nicole when she has to work. School officials are insisting that Nicole return to school immediately or begin a program of home tutoring.

Biological Factors: Nicole has always been an anxious child who had difficulty with separation and new experiences. While her mother is unaware of any family history of anxiety disorders, she claims that Nicole has seemed “edgy” and “fearful” from “day one.” Nicole’s diet is significant for her lack of appetite—excessive consumption of caffeine-rich cola beverages (approximately 6 cans per day)—and she also complains of sleep difficulties.

Psychological Factors: Nicole is deeply attached to her mother who works full time. Her mother finds it challenging to parent such a needy child. Nicole is beset by ongoing anxiety, particularly in response to separation experiences such as going to school and sleepovers at friends’ homes. She has numerous strengths, such as her high intellect, loving nature, and artistic skill. She has poor self-esteem, and is riddled with feelings of inadequacy.

Social Factors: Nicole lives and attends school in an urban environment. Having moved to the city only recently, Nicole and her mother feel relatively isolated and feel tentative in a big city with significant crime and hustle-bustle. Nicole’s relatives all live in distant cities, and her mother’s work demands have limited their ability to make social or community connections.

Biopsychosocial Formulation and Plan: Nicole, who may or may not have a biological tendency toward anxiety, is certainly not benefiting from the high levels of caffeine she is consuming. Caffeine may be contributing to some degree to her sleeplessness, low appetite, and possibly even her anxiety. Most prominent, however, appears to be Nicole’s sense of isolation in a new and intimidating environment and her necessary dependence on her single, full-time working mother. By staying home from school, Nicole (perhaps unconsciously) succeeds in securing her mother’s presence, or at least the attention of a neighbor. Nicole’s school refusal may be inadvertently reinforced by the companionship and attention of her mother and neighbors, as well as by relief from the more challenging aspects of getting to school on public transportation and contending with school demands. The lack of a secure social support network appears to be enhancing her dependency on her mother and generating fearfulness and school refusal.

Treatment should progress in a number of ways. First, a behavioral program should be instituted whereby shaping is utilized to gradually reinforce Nicole’s reentry to school. For example, Nicole’s mother could spend the first hour of her school day during her first week back at school, then only the first 30 minutes, then merely accompany her to school, and so forth. Nicole’s successes could be reinforced by special time with her mother, enjoyable experiences with friends, or other desirable incentives. This behavioral plan should be augmented by some supportive psychotherapy to help Nicole express her fears and dependency needs, both verbally and through nonverbal means such as play and drawing. Efforts should also be encouraged for the family to extend their social network, and consultation could be provided to determine available resources and strategies. Nicole’s participation in activities (such as group art projects), which can enhance her sense of esteem and competence, would also be beneficial. Finally, all caffeine should be eliminated from Nicole’s diet

 

 

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Quality Papers

We value our clients. For this reason, we ensure that each paper is written carefully as per the instructions provided by the client. Our editing team also checks all the papers to ensure that they have been completed as per the expectations.

Professional Academic Writers

Over the years, our Acme Homework has managed to secure the most qualified, reliable and experienced team of writers. The company has also ensured continued training and development of the team members to ensure that it keep up with the rising Academic Trends.

Affordable Prices

Our prices are fairly priced in such a way that ensures affordability. Additionally, you can get a free price quotation by clicking on the "Place Order" button.

On-Time delivery

We pay strict attention on deadlines. For this reason, we ensure that all papers are submitted earlier, even before the deadline indicated by the customer. For this reason, the client can go through the work and review everything.

100% Originality

At Buy An Essay, all papers are plagiarism-free as they are written from scratch. We have taken strict measures to ensure that there is no similarity on all papers and that citations are included as per the standards set.

Customer Support 24/7

Our support team is readily available to provide any guidance/help on our platform at any time of the day/night. Feel free to contact us via the Chat window or support email: support@acmehomework.com.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Buy An Essay has stood as the world’s leading custom essay writing services providers. Once you enter all the details in the order form under the place order button, the rest is up to us.

Essays

Essay Writing Services

At Buy An Essay, we prioritize on all aspects that bring about a good grade such as impeccable grammar, proper structure, zero-plagiarism and conformance to guidelines. Our experienced team of writers will help you completed your essays and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission and Business Papers

Be assured that you’ll definitely get accepted to the Master’s level program at any university once you enter all the details in the order form. We won’t leave you here; we will also help you secure a good position in your aspired workplace by creating an outstanding resume or portfolio once you place an order.

Editing

Editing and Proofreading

Our skilled editing and writing team will help you restructure you paper, paraphrase, correct grammar and replace plagiarized sections on your paper just on time. The service is geared toward eliminating any mistakes and rather enhancing better quality.

Coursework

Technical papers

We have writers in almost all fields including the most technical fields. You don’t have to worry about the complexity of your paper. Simply enter as much details as possible in the place order section.